I recently discovered a very, very good way to understand quantum mechanics. Even people who don't understand quantum mechanics can easily understand the counterintuitive phenomena in quantum mechanics!

我最近發(fā)現了一個(gè)特別特別好的思路理解量子力學(xué),即便是不懂量子力學(xué)的人,也很容易把量子力學(xué)中的反常識現象聽(tīng)懂個(gè)大概!

As for me, I have been doing popular science on quantum mechanics for many years. I have found that when many people hear about concepts such as the double-slit interference experiment, wave-particle duality, probability waves, measurement collapse, and quantum entanglement, they will first ask why: Why is the quantum world like this?

至于我,做量子力學(xué)科普很多年了,我發(fā)現很多人一聽(tīng)到雙縫干涉實(shí)驗,波粒二象性; 概率波; 測量坍塌; 量子糾纏這樣的概念,首先會(huì )問(wèn)為什么,為什么量子世界會(huì )這樣?

Most of the time, when we do science popularization, we can only tell you: Don't ask why! Because the basic phenomena of the microscopic world are like this, and science only summarizes the phenomena, not explains them.

而大部分時(shí)候,我們做科普,只能告訴你:不要問(wèn)為什么!因為微觀(guān)世界的基本現象就是這樣子的,科學(xué)只是歸納現象,而不解釋現象。

First of all, before you understand quantum mechanics, you should know that quantum mechanics is the phenomenon of the microscopic world. Generally speaking, it refers to the movement of particles smaller than atoms. These phenomena include wave-particle duality, probability waves, quantum entanglement, etc.

首先你在了解量子力學(xué)之前要知道,量子力學(xué)就是微觀(guān)世界的現象,大致呢,也就說(shuō)比原子還小的那些粒子的運動(dòng)現象,這些現象包括波粒二象性; 概率波; 量子糾纏等等

But you will find that there is a common point behind these quantum phenomena, that is, all microscopic particles are uncertain and vague, that is to say: microscopic particles do not have a definite shape or definite boundaries.

但是你會(huì )發(fā)現這些量子現象的背后都有一個(gè)共同點(diǎn),那就是所有微觀(guān)粒子是不確定的,是模糊不清的,也就是說(shuō):微觀(guān)粒子沒(méi)有確定的形狀和確定的邊界。
原創(chuàng )翻譯:龍騰網(wǎng) http://www.flyercoupe.com 轉載請注明出處


When we humans first understood microscopic particles, we always thought that these particles were a kind of solid sphere. But soon physicists discovered the wave-particle duality and the idea that particles were solid spheres was passed!

當我們人類(lèi)一開(kāi)始理解微觀(guān)粒子總是認為這些粒子就是一種類(lèi)似于實(shí)心的小球。但很快 物理學(xué)家就發(fā)現了波粒二象性然后粒子是實(shí)心小球的觀(guān)念就被淘汰掉了!

That is to say, these particles are both waves and particles. This sentence still sounds difficult to understand. It seems that it is still difficult for the human brain to imagine an obxt that is both a wave and a particle. But it doesn't matter. Anyway, this concept of wave-particle duality is outdated. The latest understanding of microscopic particles in the physics community is a view based on quantum field theory.

也就是說(shuō)這些粒子即是波也是粒子,這句話(huà)聽(tīng)起來(lái)依舊很難理解,人類(lèi)大腦好像還很難想象出:一種即是波又是粒子的物體。但沒(méi)事,反正這種波粒二象性的觀(guān)念也落后了。目前物理學(xué)界對微觀(guān)粒子的最新認知:就是一種基于量子場(chǎng)論的觀(guān)點(diǎn)。

In quantum field theory, wave-particle duality is just an appearance. In fact, any elementary particle is a field. The so-called particle is just a kind of energy excited by the quantum field. Different particles have different quantum fields!

在量子場(chǎng)論中,波粒二象性也只是表象,其實(shí)任何一種基本粒子都是一種場(chǎng)。所謂的粒子也只是量子場(chǎng)激發(fā)的一種能量,不同的粒子有不同的量子場(chǎng)!

For example, an electron is an electron field; a photon is a photon field; a quark is a quark field. So how big is this quantum field?

比如電子就是電子場(chǎng);光子就是光子場(chǎng);夸克就是夸克場(chǎng),那這個(gè)量子場(chǎng)到底有多大呢?

In fact, the quantum field is as big as the universe, that is to say: the essence of a particle is precisely because it is a quantum field!

其實(shí)宇宙有多大 量子場(chǎng)就有多大,也就是說(shuō):一個(gè)粒子的本質(zhì)正是由于它是一種量子場(chǎng)!

And this quantum field can extend to every corner of the universe, so the range of a particle is the entire space.

而這個(gè)量子場(chǎng)又可以延伸到宇宙各個(gè)角落,所以一個(gè)粒子的范圍就是整個(gè)空間。

After hearing this, it feels even more difficult to understand?

聽(tīng)了這話(huà),感覺(jué)更難以理解了嗎?

Don't worry, I will use new ideas and infer from daily life experience to figure out: Why are microscopic particles like this?

別著(zhù)急,接下來(lái)我就會(huì )用新的思路,從日常生活中的經(jīng)驗推理出:為什么微觀(guān)粒子會(huì )是這個(gè)樣子呢?

Now stretch out your right hand and pinch your nose. Do you find that the shape of your nose has changed? Then think again, how does the force work when you pinch your nose?

你現在伸出你的右手,然后捏一下你的鼻子,你看,你現在是不是發(fā)現:你鼻子的形狀改變了。那你再想一下,你用手捏鼻子這個(gè)過(guò)程,力到底是如何作用的?

In fact, when you can magnify this behavior to a microscopic scale, you will find that pinching your nose with your hand is just an electromagnetic interaction between the extranuclear electrons on the surface of your hand skin and the extranuclear electrons on the surface of your nose. The extranuclear electrons are all negatively charged, so when the extranuclear electrons are not in complete contact, they produce a repulsive effect by relying on the electromagnetic force.

其實(shí),當你可以把這個(gè)行為放大到微觀(guān)尺度 ,你就會(huì )發(fā)現手捏鼻子,只是手皮表面的核外電子和鼻子表面的核外電子發(fā)生了電磁作用,核外電子都是帶負電荷的,所以核外電子在沒(méi)有完全接觸到的情況下,依靠電磁力就產(chǎn)生了排斥作用。

At this point, think about it more deeply: the electrons in your hand and the electrons in your nose are obviously not in contact, and there is only a vacuum area between them, so how could there be any effect?

在這點(diǎn)上,更深入地思考一下:明明手上的核外電子和鼻子的核外電子沒(méi)有接觸,它們之間都是真空區域,怎么可能會(huì )發(fā)生作用呢?

This seems to be a kind of action at a distance, so the first idea that violates common sense was born! In order to make the counterintuitive phenomenon of action at a distance logically self-consistent, we assume that an extranuclear electron and another extranuclear electron have an action force. There must be an obxt in the middle that transmits this force, and this substance is called a propagator.

這好像就是一種超距作用,所以第一個(gè)違反常識的觀(guān)念就誕生了!為了讓超距作用這種反常識現象在邏輯上自洽,我們就認為 一個(gè)核外電子和另一個(gè)核外電子發(fā)生了作用力。中間必然有一個(gè)物體傳遞了這種力,這種物質(zhì)也就叫做傳播子。

The propagator of electromagnetic force is virtual photon. When two extranuclear electrons interact with each other, virtual photons are constantly exchanged between them to transmit this force. If you think about it again, if we regard microscopic particles as solid balls, you will find that there is a big problem here.

電磁力的傳播子也就是虛光子,兩個(gè)核外電子在發(fā)生電磁作用的時(shí)候,就會(huì )有虛光子在中間不斷交換 來(lái)傳遞這種力。這時(shí)候你再想一下,如果我們將微觀(guān)粒子認為是一種實(shí)心的小球,你就會(huì )發(fā)現這里面存在一個(gè)很大的問(wèn)題。

The interaction between electrons relies on propagators such as virtual photons. So how does the interaction between propagators and electrons occur? Since microscopic particles have been assumed to be solid spheres, there will always be a vacuum between propagators and electrons, which is a kind of action at a distance. So once we identify microscopic particles as small spheres in the classical physical world, it is impossible for these particles to interact with each other.

電子和電子之間的作用力,依靠的虛光子這種傳播子。那傳播子和電子之間的作用又是怎么發(fā)生的。既然微觀(guān)粒子 已經(jīng)被假設成實(shí)心小球,那傳播子和電子之間總會(huì )存在真空,這就是一種超距作用。所以 一旦我們將微觀(guān)粒子 認定成經(jīng)典物理世界的小球,那么這些粒子之間就不可能發(fā)生相互作用。

Because there is always a vacuum between them, which is like a wall, making it impossible for all particles to interact with each other, so there can only be one possibility for the form of microscopic particles to explain the logical bug caused by this long-distance action. That is, microscopic particles themselves are vague and fill the entire space. There is no boundary between them, and the particles themselves are also a kind of intertwined quantum field!

因為它們之間總有真空 真空就好像是一堵墻,導致所有粒子都不可能發(fā)生相互作用力,所以微觀(guān)粒子的形態(tài)只能存在一種可能性,才能解釋這種超距作用帶來(lái)的邏輯上的bug。那就是微觀(guān)粒子本身就是模糊不清的,充滿(mǎn)了整個(gè)空間 它們之間本來(lái)就沒(méi)有界限,粒子和粒子之間 本身也是一種交織在一起的量子場(chǎng)!

In fact, the laws of physics do not recognize action at a distance. The so-called action at a distance of quantum entanglement is itself an illusion. Newton has the most say on action at a distance. As early as when Newton was alive, he found that action at a distance was intolerable! Newton found that there was a vacuum zone between planets. There was no propagator between two planets, but they still produced gravity. Isn't this action at a distance?

其實(shí)物理法則并不認同超距作用,量子糾纏那種所謂的超距作用本身也是一種假象,對于超距作用 牛頓最有發(fā)言權,早在牛頓活著(zhù)的時(shí)候,就發(fā)現超距作用是無(wú)法容忍的!牛頓發(fā)現 星球和星球之間都是真空地帶,兩個(gè)星球之間沒(méi)有任何傳播子,它們居然還會(huì )產(chǎn)生引力,這不就是超距作用嗎?

In order to solve this problem, Newton introduced the concept of ether proposed by Aristotle more than 2,000 years ago. He believed that ether was evenly distributed in every corner of the universe and acted as a propagator of gravity. Of course, Michelson-Morley later falsified the ether!

為了解決這個(gè)問(wèn)題,牛頓就引入了2000多年前 亞里士多德提出的以太概念。并認為以太均勻分布在宇宙各個(gè)角落,并且充當了引力的傳播子,當然 后來(lái) 邁克爾遜莫雷實(shí)驗證偽了以太!

The action at a distance between gravity was eventually replaced by the curvature of space-time in general relativity, which holds that gravity is an illusion.

引力之間的超距作用最后被廣義相對論的時(shí)空彎曲所取代,而廣義相對論認為 引力只是假象

The so-called gravitational effect is just the mass bending the space! obxts moving in the curved space behave like gravitational effects! Therefore, there is no need to introduce additional propagators between gravity!

所謂的引力作用 只是質(zhì)量彎曲了空間!物體在彎曲的空間運動(dòng),才表現的像引力作用!所以引力之間并不需要引入額外的傳播子!

But quantum mechanics doesn't think so. Quantum mechanics must give gravity a propagator, which is the graviton. Of course, there is still a lot of controversy about the graviton because general relativity believes that gravity is not a force, so there is no need for a propagator. But quantum mechanics still believes that gravity is a force and needs a propagator.

但是量子力學(xué)不這樣想,量子力學(xué)非得給引力整上一個(gè)傳播子,這也就是引力子。當然對于引力子,目前的爭議依舊很大因為廣義相對論認為引力不是力,所以無(wú)需傳播子。但量子力學(xué)還是認為引力是力,是需要傳播子的

Back to the original question, it is precisely because the laws of physics do not recognize action at a distance that microscopic particles can only be in a vague form to solve this problem. You see, the electromagnetic force acts at an infinite distance, which requires that the vague boundaries of microscopic particles are also infinitely far away. It is precisely because particles are vague that they cannot have a clear position like a solid ball.

回到最初的問(wèn)題,正是因為物理法則不認同超距作用。所以微觀(guān)粒子只能是模糊不清的形態(tài) 才能解決這個(gè)問(wèn)題。你看 電磁力的作用是無(wú)限遠的,這就要求微觀(guān)粒子這種迷糊不清的界限也是無(wú)限遠的。正是由于粒子是迷糊不清的,所以它就不可能像實(shí)心小球那樣有明確的位置。

So we can only describe it with probability, and that's it. If you look at quantum entanglement again, the so-called entangled particles are actually the same particle. The direct energy is split into two and becomes two entangled particles, but the entangled particles still use the same quantum field.

所以我們只能用概率描述它,講到這兒。你再看量子糾纏,其實(shí)所謂的糾纏粒子就是同一個(gè)粒子,直視能量一分為二 變成兩個(gè)糾纏粒子,但是糾纏粒子之間 還是同用同一個(gè)量子場(chǎng)。
原創(chuàng )翻譯:龍騰網(wǎng) http://www.flyercoupe.com 轉載請注明出處


This quantum field can extend to every corner of the universe, so the so-called superluminal interaction between two entangled particles is actually the simultaneous action of the same particle. If one of the entangled particles is changed, the other particle will definitely change at the same time. It is easier to understand the double-slit interference experiment of electrons with this idea.

這個(gè)量子場(chǎng)本來(lái)就可以延伸到宇宙各個(gè)角落,所以?xún)蓚€(gè)糾纏粒子所謂的超光速作用,其實(shí)就是同一個(gè)粒子的同時(shí)作用。改變其中一個(gè)糾纏粒子,另一個(gè)粒子肯定也會(huì )同時(shí)改變,你用這種思路理解電子的雙縫干涉實(shí)驗就更容易了。

What is most difficult for us to understand is why electrons pass through the double slits at the same time and why an electron interferes with itself.

我們最難理解的就是為什么電子會(huì )同時(shí)經(jīng)過(guò)雙縫,并且一個(gè)電子為什么會(huì )和自身發(fā)生干涉。

In fact, let alone double slits, even if there are countless slits, electrons can pass through them at the same time! Because of the fuzzy form of electrons, it is destined that electrons can be in multiple positions at the same time.

其實(shí)別說(shuō)是雙縫,哪怕是無(wú)數個(gè)縫,電子都能同時(shí)經(jīng)過(guò)!因為電子這種模糊不清的形態(tài),就注定了電子可以同時(shí)處于多個(gè)位置。

Finally, let's summarize: Matter in the universe is interacting with each other all the time. If we magnify this interaction, we will find that there is a huge vacuum zone between all particles. If the particles are small balls, then the vacuum will hinder the occurrence of super-distance action. Therefore, microscopic particles can only be blurred to resolve this super-distance action.

最后,讓我們總結一下:宇宙中的物質(zhì)無(wú)時(shí)無(wú)刻都在發(fā)生著(zhù)相互作用,如果我們將這種相互作用放大,會(huì )發(fā)現所有粒子之間都存在巨大的真空地帶。如果粒子是小球的話(huà),那么真空就會(huì )阻礙超距作用的發(fā)生。所以微觀(guān)粒子只能是迷糊不清的,才能化解這種超距作用。
原創(chuàng )翻譯:龍騰網(wǎng) http://www.flyercoupe.com 轉載請注明出處


You will understand after hearing this: the vague concept of microscopic particles is the most logical! The concept of particles as solid balls is counterintuitive.

聽(tīng)到這里,你就會(huì )明白:微觀(guān)粒子迷糊不清的概念,才是最符合邏輯的!而粒子是實(shí)心小球的概念,才是反常識的。