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CaiLei
There is a subject in China called archeology.
For archaeology, the most valuable artifacts are not gold, diamond jewelry or artwork, but bamboo slips, silk book, oracle bones, and bronzes with writing on them.
Documentary materials are often limited by the era and the cognitive limitations of the recorders, so that it is impossible to reflect the social phenomena and historical facts completely and truthfully.
But the cultural relics are different, it is in each period of time left behind the obxtive reality. It can fully confirm the authenticity of historical documents, correct the errors of documentary records, and fill the gaps in documentary records.
Bamboo slips of the Qin Dynasty unearthed in December 1975 in Tomb No. 11 of Sleeping Tiger Land, Chengguan Town, Yunmeng County, xiaogan City, Hubei Province, China, recording the laws and official documents of the time, have been collated and included in the book "Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts".

中國有一門(mén)學(xué)科叫考古學(xué)。
對于考古學(xué)來(lái)說(shuō),最有價(jià)值的文物不是黃金、鉆石首飾或藝術(shù)品,而是竹簡(jiǎn)、絲綢書(shū)、甲骨文和帶有文字的青銅器。
文獻資料往往受時(shí)代和記錄者認知局限的限制,無(wú)法完整、真實(shí)地反映社會(huì )現象和歷史事實(shí)。
但文物不同,它是在每個(gè)時(shí)期留下的客觀(guān)現實(shí)。它可以充分確認歷史文獻的真實(shí)性,糾正文獻記錄的錯誤,填補文獻記錄的空白。
1975年12月出土于湖北省孝感市云夢(mèng)縣城關(guān)鎮睡虎鄉11號墓的秦代竹簡(jiǎn),記錄了當時(shí)的法律和官文,經(jīng)整理并收錄在《睡虎地秦簡(jiǎn)》一書(shū)中。

原創(chuàng )翻譯:龍騰網(wǎng) http://www.flyercoupe.com 轉載請注明出處


This batch of bamboo slips is a precious historical material for the study of politics, economy, culture, law and military in the period from the late Warring States period to the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, and it is also the basis for the proofreading of ancient books.
According to the evidence, the owner of the tomb was "xi", who had served as a magistrate of the county during his lifetime and participated in "prison management", and these bamboo slips may be the transcxtions of the laws and legal documents of the Qin Dynasty made by the owner of the tomb according to the needs of his work during his lifetime.
“Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts” counted 1,155, 80 pieces of debris, is now categorized and organized into ten parts, including: "18 kinds of Qin law", "the effect of the law", "the Qin law of miscellaneous copy", "the law of the Q&A", "sealing diagnostic formula", "chronicle", "language book", "for the way of the official", "day book" A and "day book" B. The "language book", "effect" and "day book" A and "day book" B. Among them, the Book of Words, the Effective Laws, the Seal Diagnostic Forms, and the Book of Days are the titles of the original books, while the others are organized and formulated by the later generations. The bamboo slips are 23.1 to 27.8 centimeters long and 0.5 to 0.8 centimeters wide, and the inner texts are written in ink with Qin clerical scxt, written in the late Warring States period and the period of Qin Shi Huang.

這批竹簡(jiǎn)是戰國末至秦始皇時(shí)期研究政治、經(jīng)濟、文化、法律、軍事的珍貴史料,也是古籍校對的依據。
據證證,墓主是“喜”,生前曾擔任縣長(cháng),參與“監獄管理”,這些竹簡(jiǎn)可能是墓主生前根據工作需要制作的秦朝法律和法律文書(shū)的抄錄。
睡虎地秦墓竹簡(jiǎn)共1155枚,殘片80枚,分類(lèi)整理為十部分內容,包括:《秦律十八種》《效律》《秦律雜抄》《法律答問(wèn)》《封診式》《編年記》《語(yǔ)書(shū)》《為吏之道》、甲種與乙種《日書(shū)》。其中《語(yǔ)書(shū)》《效律》《封診式》《日書(shū)》為原書(shū)標題,其他均為后人整理擬定。

However, through the excavation of Qin slips, we see that the Qin Empire's corvée was paid, the court took care of the food, and the government could distribute clothes. Each household was not allowed to draft two people to serve at the same time, and the workload in winter was reduced by one-third. In short, it was very humane, and Qin Shi Huang was not the tyrant depicted in the literature and novels.
As for the fact that Emperor Qin Shi Huang did not bury the Confucian scholars alive, there are actually controversies in Chinese history.
For example, does the term "Confucian" refer to "Confucian students" or "sorcerers"? This point needs to be verified by more historical data.
But in any case, the “Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts” is a very, very, very important historical material for the modern study of the late Warring States period to the early Qin Dynasty.

然而,通過(guò)秦簡(jiǎn)的挖掘,我們看到秦帝國的徭役是有償的,朝廷負責食物的,政府可以分發(fā)衣服。每戶(hù)不允許征召兩個(gè)人同時(shí)服役,冬季的工作量減少了三分之一??傊?,非常人性化,秦始皇也不是文學(xué)小說(shuō)中描繪的暴君。
至于秦始皇沒(méi)有活埋儒家學(xué)者,中國歷史上其實(shí)是有爭議的。
例如,“儒家”一詞是指“儒家學(xué)生”還是“巫師”?這一點(diǎn)需要用更多的歷史數據來(lái)驗證。
但不管怎么說(shuō),《睡虎地秦簡(jiǎn)》對于戰國后期到秦初初的現代研究,都是非常、非常、非常重要的史料。

The Thirteen Ming-Tombs in Beijing were not stolen, nor were the tombs of Zhu Yuanzhang and Empress Ma in Nanjing.
Using modern technology, wouldn't the results be known by comparing the genes of Zhu Di and Empress Ma?
China still has a lot of underground cultural relics have not been excavated, the current level of technology can not do 100% of non-destructive excavation, all, China will not do any work on these cultural relics, so that they continue to sleep in the ground is the best protection.

北京的十三明陵沒(méi)有被盜,南京的朱元璋和皇后馬的陵墓也沒(méi)有被盜。
使用現代技術(shù),通過(guò)比較朱棣和馬皇后的基因,難道不會(huì )知道結果嗎?
中國還有很多地下文物沒(méi)有被挖掘出來(lái),以目前的技術(shù)水平還不能做到100%的無(wú)損挖掘,中國不會(huì )對這些文物做任何工作,讓它們繼續沉睡在地下是最好的保護。